The Blog: A new way of writing

29 12 2009

Nowadays, the digital tools are more important than those who are not. 

Using digital tool allows us to do much more movements, since they are in the net we can modify them constantly or add information when we want to.

One of these new tools is known as blog. But what is a blog?

“A blog is a Web site shaped by individual income that contain commentaries, news, videoes, links, knowledge or thoughts of the editor of the blog, which can be extended or commented by the readers of the blog, in the section of commentaries, all that under a strict control of the publisher, who is the one who decides the content that is going to appear in his or her blog. “

There are different types of blogs, here we have a possible way to classify them:

  1. Thematic blog, of politics, news, opinion, etc.: commentaries on the news current importance. The interesting thing in this case is that there is a direct relation among whom he or she writes and hisor her hearing, that it is not half-full for a publisher like in the traditional means. This is good and wrong, to the effect that there is neither a filter nor quality control, but at the same time there is the unique freedom. It has been said also that the bloggers ” we play at being journalists “.
  2. Personal blog: diary of life or diary of trip, with photos or histories.
  3. Collaborative blog: a blog that is written by several persons, as Sushi Knights. The shared thing is the record of users, the tags or classifications of the content and the appearance of the place.
  4. Fotolog: a fotolog is a kind of blog in which he or she does not write himself or herself very much, just a paragraph and the most important of the content is a photo that illustrates a moment of the time or an event.
  5. AudioBlog or Podcast: a blog in which an audio program is published (similar to a radio program) normally of 20-60 minutes of duration and that allows the users to unload it to a device as a portable breeding MP3 player.

References:

* Blog. (2009, December 22). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 13:23, December 29, 2009, from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Blog&oldid=333203987

* Different types of blog. Retrieved 14:26, December 29, 2009, from: http://www.geekpoint.net/blogging/5019-different-types-blogs.html

* Photoblog. (2009, December 22). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 13:26, December 29, 2009, from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Photoblog&oldid=333221765

* MP3 blog. (2009, December 17). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 13:28, December 29, 2009, from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=MP3_blog&oldid=332163432

* ¿Ya tienes un blog?. Retrieved 14:29, December 29, 2009, from: http://www.maestrosdelweb.com/editorial/blogs/

* Blogger. Create your free blog. Retrieved 14:30, December 29, 2009, from: https://www.blogger.com/start





The Hypertext

29 12 2009

The original idea of hypertext owes to Vannevar Bush, when in 1945, in his article ” Seize we may think “, describes the MEMEX device in which:

” A  person stores his or her books, annotations, records and communications, and this collection of information is mechanized so that he or she can be consulted with high speed and many flexibility “. 

According to Bush MEMEX’s essential characteristic is its skill of “tying” or associating two articles. 

In 1965, Ted Nelson was the first one in coining the word “hypertext” (not linear text) and he defines it like: 

” A body of written or pictorial material interconnected in a complex form that cannot be represented in suitable form using role “. 

The hypertext is a technology that organizes a base of information in blocks different from contents, connected across a series of links which activation or selection provokes the recovery of information.

It has been defined as an approach to handle and to organize information, in which the information is stored in a net of nodes connected by links. The nodes contenienen texts and if they contain in addition graphs, images, audio, animations and video, as well as feasible code or another form of information they gives the name of hyperway, that is to say, a generalization of hypertext. 

 Considering how the human knowledge is represented, the man operates for association, jumping of an article to the next one, in almost instantaneous form. The paradigm hyperhappens tries to shape this process with links among pieces of information contained in nodes. 

Unlike the printed books, in which the reading is realized in sequential form from the beginning until the end, in a hypermedial environment the “reading” it can be realized in not linear form, and the users are not forced to continue an established sequence, but they can move across the information and turn the pages intuitively of the contents for association continuing his interests in search of a concept. In the figure, later, there is represented the sequential style, the hierarchic style, the style reticulado and the hyperway. 

So, it is clear that the hypertext is a new and practical devide which will revolutionaize the digital word.

References:

*  Hypertext. (2009, December 18). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 12:55, December 29, 2009, from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Hypertext&oldid=332522736

*  Ted Nelson. (2009, November 28). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 12:56, December 29, 2009, from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Ted_Nelson&oldid=328464346

* Vannevar Bush. (2009, December 18). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 12:58, December 29, 2009, from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Vannevar_Bush&oldid=332535705

* What is Hypertext?. Retrieved 14:01, December 29, 2009, from: http://www.w3.org/WhatIs.html

* Hypertext. An Internet Encyclopedia. Retrieved 14:05, December 29, 2009, from: http://www.freesoft.org/CIE/Topics/12.htm

* Hypertext Definition. Retrieved 14:05, December 29, 2009, from: http://www.cyberartsweb.org/cpace/ht/defineov.html





Wikinovela

8 10 2009

La Wikinovela es un proyecto de creación colectiva, multilingüe y no lineal, basado en tecnología wiki y con licencia Creative Commons, ha sido desarrollado dentro de la facultad de Filosofía y Letras de la Universidad de Deusto entre el 24 de abril y el 24 de julio de 2006.

En cuanto a la descripción y a los objetivos del proyecto, La finalidad del proyecto Wikinovela, consiste en la creación de una novela colectiva, multilingüe (en castellano, euskara e inglés) e hipertextual, empleando para ello el formato wiki, que permite una colaboración directa e inmediata entre autores. Actualmente se encuentra en espera de una posible segunda versión en la primavera de 2007.

La Wikinovela se ofreció al público que podía participar de diferentes maneras:

  • Modificando (para mejorarlo) el texto propuesto por otros autores.
  • Continuando cualquiera de los inicios propuestos.
  • Proponiendo ramificaciones del argumento a través de la creación de enlaces.

El objetivo central del proyecto radica, por tanto, en la interacción de distintos componentes lingüístico-literarios y de las TIC aplicados al hecho narrativo:

  • La creación colectiva por medio del formato wiki, que permite una colaboración on-line directa e inmediata entre autores
  • La hipertextualidad, es decir, la ruptura de la linealidad por medio de las nuevas ramas que generan los hipervínculos
  • El multilingüismo, para fomentar la interacción y el intercambio entre distintas lenguas y culturas, y potenciar el tejido de una red de comunicación entre creadores de diversas procedencias.

 

La Wikinovela se ofrece en tres idiomas (castellano, euskera e inglés) y da la oportunidad a los alumnos para poder escribir artículos propios e interactuar en los de sus compañeros. En la asignatura de Edición Digital, nosotros los alumnos de filología inglesa, trabajamos con Wiki (que según la Wikipedia es un sitio web colaborativo que puede ser editado por varios usuarios, y que, a diferencia de un blog, colaborativo, o no, no está necesariamente ordenado de manera cronológica; los usuarios de una wiki pueden así, crear, editar, borrar o modificar el contenido de una página web, de una forma interactiva, fácil y rápida; dichas facilidades hacen de una wiki una herramienta efectiva para la escritura colaborativa), donde tenemos una página de referencias en las que escribimos links de páginas visitadas y de trabajos realizados, cualquier persona que se registre en el Wiki puede visitar nuestras páginas. Por lo tanto, en mi opinión la Wikinovela es una gran oportunidad para poder escribir nuestros propios artículos y opiniones y compararlas o debatirlas con otras personas y así poder aprender.

Referencias:





British Library

7 10 2009

Not only books have been digitalized, but libraries have changed too. One of the most important digital libraries is the British Library which is situated in London and it holds over 150 million items in all known languages and formats. It includes around 25 million books, some of them been substancial additional collection of manuscripts and historical items dating back as far as 300 BC.

The British Library not only receives copies of all books produced in the United Kingdom, it also receives books from Ireland. It was created in 1973 by the Brisith Library Act 1972. In 1982, it absorbed the National Sound Archive. The core of the Library´s historical collection are some donations and acquisitions of the eighteen century and they are known as the “foundation collection”.

The new library was designed specially for the purpose by the architect Colin St. John Wilson. Facing Euston Road is a large piazza that includes pieces of public art, such as large sculptures by Eduardo Paolozzi (a bronze statue based on William Blake‘s study of Isaac Newton) and Antony Gormley. It is the largest public building constructed in the United Kingdom in the 20th century. In the middle of the building is a four-storey glass tower containing the King’s Library, with 65,000 printed volumes along with other pamphlets, manuscripts and maps collected by King George III between 1763 and 1820.

In 1911 the Parliamnt established the principle of the legal deposit, which says that each of the six libraries have to receive a free copy of every item published in Ireland and UK, the other libraries were: the Bodleian Library at Oxford; the University Library at Cambridge; the Trinity College Library at Dublin; and the National Libraries of Scotland and Wales. But the British Library is the only one ehich receives the items automatically.

If we talk about the material available online, The British Library makes almost none of its collections available online and free to the public. Its Online Gallery gives access to 30,000 images from various medieval books, together with a handful of exhibition-style items in a proprietary format, such as the Lindisfarne Gospels. This includes the facility to “turn the virtual pages” of a few documents, such as Leonardo da Vinci´s notebooks.

When Google Books started, the British Library signed an agreement with Microsoft to digitise a number of books from the British Library for its Live Search Books project. This material was only available to readers in the USA, and closed in May 2008. People have acces to some books in the Sir John Ritbal Gallery, and the books are well-known: Beowulf, Canterbury Tales, Le Morte Dartour…It also has a newspaper section situated in Colindale (North London).

 References:

* The British Library. Retrieved 19:05, October 7, 2009, from: http://www.bl.uk/

* British Library, In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 18:27, October 7, 2009, from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/British_Library

* British Library´s Manuscripts Catalogues. Retrieved 19:00, October 7, 2009, from: http://www.bl.uk/catalogues/manuscripts/INDEX.asp

* The British Library London, Colin St John Wilson and Partners (1997). Retrieved 19:02, October 7, 2009, from: http://www.galinsky.com/buildings/British%20library/index.htm

 





Main differences between book and eBook

29 09 2009

We are in the presence of a revolution in the world of the book. The normal book, printed in paper, is being threatened. Is the invention of the eBook the end of the paper book?

The eBook is an electronical or digital version of the paper book. This definiton is nor clear because it can refer to an individual work in digital format or mechanism used to read book in digital format. We have to make a difference between eBook and hypertext. The hypertext  is destined for the structure of the information across links, whereas an electronic book is not any more than the digitalization than a book originally edited in paper.

But what are the main difference between book and eBook? The normal book is easy to use because of the ergonomics of the paper, this does not happen in the eBook because the screen has limits. The normal book can be transportted from one place to another without problems but the eBook has ubiquity. The book is used as a tool for study and the eBook can be used as it too but also as a searcher to navegate in the Internet.

The advantages of using an eBook are remarkables. We do not waste huge quantities of paper. The eBook is digital and we do not use paper because all the information we need is inside it and we see in the secreen. It is a good way to save paper and nowadays this prevention is necessary. If we digitalize the books, we will save paper and space because we will not need libraries. Furthermore, the eBook is dynamic and adapts to the profile of the reader.

This new technology is changing the way of reading and some people are still reluctant to it but we only need time to asimilate it. Personally, I think that eBook is a good invention because saves paper and is attractive for people, so it will catch their attetion.

References:





The author`s role in the 21st century

28 09 2009

If we analize the role of the author during these centuries we will find out huge differences.

Before the 18th century, the author had not importance because the stories were transmitted orally. Therefore, there was not only one author because the stories changed by the word of mouth.

In the 18th century, the author was not important. He only had the main idea and wrote the original piece. Then, the ones who made the copies were the monks, it was a hard and long work. The author had not royalties.

A little later, in the 20th century, the importance of the author increased. He had royalties and was the owner of his work. The contact between the author and the reader was minimun. The author only had the reference of the reception of his creation.

Nowadays, with the Internet and the creation of the hypertext, the author has lost his mastery of the piece. When they post they work on the Internet, everyone can have access to it and of course, manipulate. It is clear that for doing this, you should have some knowledge in computers.

To sum up, I will say that the importance of the author has declined, in the past he was the owner of his work and he could do what he wanted with it, but now, with the creation of the hypertext and the Internet, we are in the presence of an active relation between the writer and the reader, because the reader can be the writer too.

References:





La Enciclopedia

23 09 2009

L’Encyclopédie ou Dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts et des métiers es una enciclopedia francesa, conjunto de 17 volúmenes editada entre los años 1751 y 1772 en Francia bajo la dirección de Denis Diderot y Jean d’Alembert.

Es considerada una de las más grandes obras del siglo XVIII, no sólo por ser la primera enciclopedia francesa, sino que también por contener la síntesis de los principales conocimientos de la época, en un esfuerzo editorial considerable para su tiempo.

Por el saber que contiene, el esfuerzo que representa, y por las intenciones que sus autores le asignaron, se convirtió en un símbolo del proyecto de la Ilustración, un arma política y en el objeto de numerosos enfrentamientos entre los editores, los redactores, y los representantes de los poderes secular y eclesiástico.

El primer volumen aparece en 1751; su publicación se suspenderá en 1752, tras la publicación del segundo volumen, y en 1759, cuando d´Alembert se retira del proyecto y se suprimen los permisos de publicación concedidos. A partir de esta fecha, publicados siete volúmenes, Diderot prosigue solo la edición de diez volúmenes de texto y cuatro de índices hasta 1765 y, posteriormente, cuatro volúmenes más de índices hasta 1772. Colaboran en la obra Rousseau, Voltaire, Duclos, Holbach, Quesnay, Turgot, Toussaint y otros escritores y philosophes ilustrados (hasta un total de 160).

La Enciclopedia tiene espíritu crítico, filosófico, científico y burgués. En cuanto al espíritu filosófico, se imponen nuevos valores: la naturaleza, que determine la actividad del hombre, la felicidad terrena, que se convierte en un objetivo, el progreso, mediante el cual cada época se esfuerza en alcanzar mejor la felicidad colectiva, este nuevo espíritu se basa en el amor por la ciencia, la tolerancia y la felicidad material. En cuanto al espíritu científico, se expresa por su carácter enciclopédico. El espíritu crítico, se ejerce principalmente contra las instituciones, como ejemplo pondremos que frente a la monarquía absoluta prefiere la monarquía constitucional. Por último, el espíritu burgués, para una adecuada comprensión de los textos de la Encyclopedie hay que tener en cuante que la Encyclopedie fue un producto básicamente de la burguesía, tanto en su origen como en su elaboración.

Referencias:

*  L’Encyclopédie. (2009, 31) de julio. ”Wikipedia, La enciclopedia libre”. Fecha de consulta: 18:30, octubre 7, 2009 : http://es.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=L%27Encyclop%C3%A9die&oldid=28520968.

 

 

* La Enciclopedia,Diccionario razonado de las ciencias, las artes y de los oficios. En ”Sociedad Andaluza de Educación Andaluza”.  Fecha de consulta 19:45, octubre 7, 2009 : http://thales.cica.es/rd/Recursos/rd99/ed99-0257-01/enciclo.html

 

* Denis Diderot (2009), “Wikipedia, La Enciclopedia Libre”. Fecha de consulta 18:21, octubre 7, 2009: http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Denis_Diderot